The process of cultivating earthworms in order to convert organic waste into fertilizer is called Vermicomposting or Vermiculture. This process is done using various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms, to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste. It feeds on the debris, manure, rotten plant parts etc and ferments it. The worms feed on the organic waste and produce nutrient-rich manure in the form of excreta. The excreta of earthworms are nutritious and hence the soil becomes fertile. They move throughout the soil and loosen the soil. This will allow air circulation to happen inside the soil and the roots get enough space to grow and extend.
The converted end product or manure is called Vermicompost. This compost will be rich in Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium compared to other composts. Vermicompost contains water-soluble nutrients and is an excellent, nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner. It is used in farming and small-scale organic farming.
Vermicompost is 100% organic and unadulterated. As it does not contain any artificial chemicals, it increases the immune system of plants and increases the yielding ability. Your plant produces quality fruit and flowers. The use of vermicompost plants remain lush green. Vermicompost is easy to use in lawns; it keeps the lawn whole year green. It attracts deep-burrowing earthworms already present in the soil. Those worms will feed on the degradable waste in soil and leaves the castings in soil. Microbial activity in worm castings will be 10 to 20 times higher than in the soil and organic matter that the worm ingests. As the worms move inside the soil, it loosen the soil and increases soil aeration. This provides sufficient space for the plant roots to develop.